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A Comprehensive Source of Nutritional Terms Nutrition Database Nutrition Dictionary: A Comprehensive Source of Nutritional Terms

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Adenosine: A compound derived from nucleic acid, composed of adenine and a sugar, D - ribose. Adenosine is the major molecular component of the nucleotides adnosine monophosphate, adenosine diphosphate, and adenosine triphosphate and of the nucleic acids deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid.

Adenosine Diphosphate: A product of the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate.

Amino Acids: Often called the “building blocks of life,” amino acids are subunits that join together in sequences to form protein. Amino acids are named as such because they contain both an acid and an amine chemical side unit.

Anorexia: Anorexia is a lack or loss of appetite, resulting in the inability to eat. Anorexia may result from poorly prepared or unattractive food or surroundings, unfavorable company, or various physical and psychological cause.

Anorexia Nervosa: A disorder characterized by a prolonged refusal to eat, resulting in emaciation, amenorrhea, emotional disturbance concerning body image, and an abnormal fear of becoming obese. The condition is seen primarily in adolescents, predominantly in girls, and is usually associated with emotional stress or conflict, such as anxiety, irritation, anger and fear, which may accompany a major change in the person’s life. Treatment consists of measures to improve nourishment, followed by therapy to overcome the underlying emotional conflicts.

Anorexiant: A drug or other agent that suppresses the appetite, such as amphetamine, phentermine, diethylpropion, fenfluramine, or dexfluramine.

Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH): Hormone produced by the posterior pituitary responsible for fluid and mineral conservation in the mammalian body. Bodybuilders often take ADH blockers to promote water loss in the days leading up to a bodybuilding competition.

Antioxidants: Group of substances reputed to neutralize harmful free radicals produced during cellular respiration.

Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR): Your body mass ratio, or the speed at which your resting body burns calories to provide for its basic survival needs. You can elevate your BMR and more easily achieve lean body mass through consistent exercise, and particularly through aerobic workouts.

Body-Fat Percentage: The total percentage of fat weight in an individual’s physique.

Cachexia: General ill health and malnutrition, marked by weakness and emaciation, usually associated with serious disease.

Calorie: The amount of energy necessary to raise one liter or water one degree celsius. A bodybuilder’s maintenance level of calories can be calculated relatively easily, then either a caloric deficit (to lose body fat), or caloric surplus (to gain muscle mass) can be initiated. The calorie content of most foods are listed on the back of packaging.

Carbohydrate: A molecule composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. It serves as the body’s primary short - term fuel source.

Catabolic: Chemical reactions in the body where larger units are broken down into smaller subunits. As an example, muscle tissue may be broken down into protein strands which, in turn, may be cleaved into individual amino acids.

Cheat Day: See Cheating.

Cheating: In nutritional terms, the word used to describe not following your diet according to plan, or a day set out to indulge yourself in food items not included in your pre-planned diet (a cheat day). In training terms, The Cheating Method refers to deliberately compromising exercise form for the sake of some extra "beyond failure" reps.

Cholesterol: A type of fat manufactured within the body but more often ingested from fatty animal - source foods like beef, pork, eggs, and milk products. Over the long term cholesterol can clog arteries and other blood vessels, leading to stroke or heart attack.

Dehydration: Biological state where the body has insufficient water levels for proper functioning. As the human body is over 90 percent water, athletes must continuously replenish the water lost during intense exercise.

Electrolytes: Charged atoms called ions which help regulate the body’s various metabolic systems. Athletes regularly consume drinks enriched with electrolytes such as potassium, calcium, and sodium to replace those lost in sweat.

Endocrine System: The network of ductless glands and other structures that elaborate and secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream, affecting the function of specific target organs. Glands of the endocrine system include the thyroid and the parathyroid, the anterior pituitary, and the posterior pituitary, the pancreas, the suprarenal glands, and the gonads.

Essential Amino Acids: The nine amino acids that cannot be manufactured by the body and must be consumed in the diet.

Fat: A high energy molecule which provides the body with long - term fuel reserves. Fat also serves as a precursor for many hormones and offers the body varying degrees of insulation and cushioning.

FDA: United States Food and Drug Administration.

Gluconeogenesis: The formation of glycogen from fatty acids and proteins rather than carbohydrates.

Glucose: A simple sugar found in certain foods, especially fruits, and a major source of energy occurring in human and animal body fluids. Glucose, when ingested or produced by the digestive hydrolysis of double sugars and starches, is absorbed into the blood from the intestines. Excess glucose in circulation is normally polymerized and stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen, which is depolymerized to glucose and liberated as needed.

Glycogen: Blood sugar stored in the muscles, liver, and to a lesser extent the bloodstream. Glycogen helps to fuel muscle contractions.

Glycogenesis: The biomechanical process by which glucose is converted into glycogen.

Glycogenolysis: The biomechanical process by which the liver converts stored glycogen back into glucose for use as a fuel.

Glycolysis: A series of enzymatically catalyzed reactions, occurring within cells, by which glucose and other sugars are broken down to yield lactic acid or pyruvic acid, releasing energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate. Aerobic glycolysis yields pyruvic acid in the presence of oxygen. Anaerobic glycolysis yields lactic acid.

Ketosis: Ketosis is the result of eating too little carbohydrate. Being in ketosis tends to reduce your feelings of hunger. Carbohydrate deprivation also causes dehydration. However, there is a distinction between losing water and losing body fat, although the two are sometimes confused. If your visit your doctor or pharmacist they can test for ketosis. If upon testing for ketosis, you realize that your body is deficit of carbohydrates, be sure to increase the total intake of carbohydrates in your diet; do not let your body go into a state of ketosis.

Lacto-vegetarian: A diet including both dairy products and eggs, but excluding meat.

Lipolysis: The breakdown or destruction of lipids of fats.

Lipolytic: The chemical breakdown of fat.

Metabolism: The sum total of all biochemical reactions that take place in the human body. Metabolism can be divided into anabolism and catabolism, the sum total which determines whether an individual gains or loses weight.

Mineral: A naturally occurring inorganic element used for the regulation of metabolism.

Nitrogen: A gaseous, nonmetallic element. Nitrogen is a component of all proteins. Nitrogen is essential to the synthesis of proteins the body must have, particularly nitrogen - containing compounds or amino acids derived directly or indirectly from plant food. The process of protein metabolism accounts for nitrogen balance. When protein catabolism exceeds protein anabolism, a negative nitrogen balance exists in the body. When protein anabolism exceeds protein catabolism, a positive nitrogen balance exists in the body.

Nutrition: The applied science of eating for greater health, fitness, and muscular gains. Through correct application of nutritional practices you can selectively add muscle mass to your physique, or lose body fat, revealing your full genetic potential, and achieving a very self gratifying goal.

Ovo-vegetarian: A diet excluding all meat and dairy products except eggs.

Pesco-vegetarian: A diet including dairy products, eggs and fish, but excluding fowl and red meat.

Positive Nitrogen Balance: Biochemical state where nitrogen levels are sufficiently high enough to allow protein synthesis to occur. Positive nitrogen balance is one of the conditions accelerated by the use of anabolic steroids.

Protein: General term used to describe molecules composed of specific sequences of amino acids. Protein is the body’s primary building material and while small amounts can be manufactured, most must be consumed in the diet.

Protein Drinks: Another option to maintain your total protein intake for the day is to take the product in liquid form. The most common are protein drinks available in small bottles, generally 500 ml or less. They are moderately priced and conveniently sized, making them very easy to drink whether at home or at the gym.

Protein Metabolism: The processes whereby protein foodstuffs are used by the body to make tissue proteins, together with the processes of breakdown of tissue proteins in the production of energy. Food proteins are first broken down into amino acids, then absorbed into the bloodstream, and finally used in body cells to form new proteins. Amino acids in excess of the body’s needs may be converted by the liver enzymes into keto acids and urea. The keto acids may be used as sources of energy via the Krebs citric acid cycle, or they may be converted into glucose or fat for storage. Urea is excreted in urine and sweat.

Saturated Fatty Acids: Fat molecules that do not have double bonds between their carbon atoms and are usually solid at room temperature. Saturated fats are considered to play a major role in the development of cardiovascular disease.

Sugar: Any of several water - soluble carbohydrates. The two principal categories of sugards are monosaccharides and disaccharides. A monosaccharide is a single sugar such as glucose, fructose, or galactose. A disaccharide is a doble sugar such as sucrose (table sugar) or lactose.

Unsaturated Fatty Acids: Fat molecules which have double bonds between their carbon atoms are usually liquid at room temperature. Generally speaking, as the number of double bonds increase, the fat becomes more oily in nature.

Vegan: A diet excluding all foods from animals, in any form. Items such as milk, cheese, and eggs are excluded.

Vitamin: Organic compound used by the body to regulate metabolism. Vitamins may be water - based or fat - based.

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