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Bodybuilding Dictionary of Terms: M-R


BodybuildingPro.com Bodybuilding Dictionary of Terms M-R Terms


Go to: S-Z Terms




Masculinization: General term used to describe the host of side effects experienced by female users of anabolic steroids. Common effects include deepening of the voice, facial hair growth, and clitoral enlargement.

Mass: The relative size of each muscle group, or of the entire physique. As long as you also have a high degree of muscularity and good balance of physical proportions, muscle mass is a highly prized quality among competitive bodybuilders.

Megadosing: The practice of taking athletic drugs and supplements in dosages far beyond those needed to obtain a desired effect.

Mesomorph: The mesomorph body type has a medium sized bone structure, and makes gains in muscle mass much more quickly than the other two types. He responds quickly to planned exercise and to dietary discipline

Metabolic Optimizer: General term used to describe any supplement that boosts an athlete’s recovery system. Most metabolic optimizers contain a substance that is reputed to offer some degree of performance enhancement.

Metabolism: The sum total of all biochemical reactions that take place in the human body. Metabolism can be divided into anabolism and catabolism, the sum total which determines whether an individual gains or loses weight.

Mineral: A naturally occurring inorganic element used for the regulation of metabolism.

Muscle Contraction: Any of five types of movement caused by muscular work. See: Isometric Contraction, Concentric Contraction, Eccentric Contraction, Isotonic Contraction, and Isokinetic Contraction.

Muscle Atrophy: See Atrophy

Muscle Dysmorphia: Muscle Dysmorphia is a newly diagnosed disorder characterized by a prolonged period of almost continuous eating, resulting in hypertrophy of the limbs and interrupted by bodybuilding training in the gym. Those who suffer from muscle dysmorphia always see their body as being too small, no matter how much weight they can, or how large their muscles become. The sufferer lives in a constant fear of being too small.

Muscle Hypertrophy: See Hypertrophy

Muscularity: An alternative term for definition or cuts.

Myofibril: An individual muscle fiber formed by muscle cells being attached end to end.

Nautilus: A brand of exercise machin in common use in large gyms. Used when bodybuilders want to add variety to their workouts. For example, doing front squats on a Nautilus squat machine as oppsed to free weight squats for a workout.

Negative (Rep): The downward half of a repetition, also known as the eccentric contraction. By placing resistance on the negative half of the movement, you can induce a high degree of muscular hypertrophy.

Nitrogen: A gaseous, nonmetallic element. Nitrogen is a component of all proteins. Nitrogen is essential to the synthesis of proteins the body must have, particularly nitrogen - containing compounds or amino acids derived directly or indirectly from plant food. The process of protein metabolism accounts for nitrogen balance. When protein catabolism exceeds protein anabolism, a negative nitrogen balance exists in the body. When protein anabolism exceeds protein catabolism, a positive nitrogen balance exists in the body.

NPC: The National Physique Committee, Inc., which administers men's and women's amateur bodybuilding competitions in the United States. THe NPC National Champions in each weight class are annually sent abroad to compete in the IFBB World Championships.

Nutrition: The applied science of eating for greater health, fitness, and muscular gains. Through correct application of nutritional practices you can selectively add muscle mass to your physique, or lose body fat, revealing your full genetic potential, and achieving a very self gratifying goal.

Olympian: A term reserved for use when regerring only to a bodybuilder who has competed in the Mr. Olympia or Ms. Olympia competitions. Not to be confused with the more common meaning of the term, which refers to those athletes who have competed in the Olympic games.

Olympic Barbell: A special type of barbell used in weight - lifting and power - lifting competitions, but also used by bodybuilders in heavy basic exercises such as bench press, squat and deadlifting (the three basic powerlifting movements, which can also be incorporated into bodybuilding). Each bar weighs 45 lbs (20 kg). The collars used in powerlifting and weightlifting weigh 5.5 lbs (2.5 kg). Collars at your gym may vary in weight, however.

Olympic Lifting: The type of weight lifting contested at the Olympic Games every four years, as well as at national and international competitions each year. The two lifts (the snatch and the clean - and - jerk) are contested in a wide variety of weight classes.

Overload: The amount of weight that you force a muscle to use that is over and above its normal strength ability. Applying an overload to a muscle forces it to increase in hypertrophy.

Overtraining: Chronically exceeding the body's recovery ability by doing too lengthy and . or too frequent workouts. Chronic overtraining can lead to injuries, infectious illness and worse: a cessation or even regression in gains of a muscle mass, tone, and strength.

Ovo-vegetarian: A diet excluding all meat and dairy products except eggs.

Passive Stretch: A partner assists you in moving joints through their ranges of motion. You can achieve a greater range of motion passively than you can statically. However, because you are not controlling the movement, there is a greater risk of injury. Passive stretching is a valuable technique but should only be used by experienced people who thoroughly understand the technique. There must also be good communication between the people performing and receiving the passive stretches.

Peak: The absolute Zenith of competitive condition achieved by a bodybuilder. To peak out optimally for a bodybuilding show, you must intelligently combine bodybuilding training, aerobic workouts, diet, mental conditioning, tanning, and a large number of other preparatory factors.

Peaking: See Peak

Pesco-vegetarian: A diet including dairy products, eggs and fish, but excluding fowl and red meat.

Placebo Effect: Pharmacological term used to describe the effects produced by an intert (inactive) substance. Often called “mind over matter”, the placebo effect is used to explain the positive actions of many supplements which are in many cases nothing more than nutrients.

Plantar Flexion: Moving the top of the foot away from the shin, that is, pointing the toes down, as in heel raises.

Plates: The flat discs placed on the ends of the barbell and dumbbell bars to increase the weight of the apparatus. Although some plates are made from vinyl - covered concrete, the best and most durable plates are manufactured from metal.

Pose: Each individual stance that a bodybuilder does onstage in order to highlight his or her muscular development.

Posedown: A forth round of judging conducted at the evening show in which the top six competitors are compared in their own choices of poses for a few, final, vital placing points.

Posing Routine: The well - choreographed series of individual poses a bodybuilder presents to his or her choice of music in the public presentation (Round Three) of the NPC / IFBB judging system. In this posing routine the competitor can choose individual poses, as opposed to the required poses done in the manadatory round at the prejudging, and thereby camouflaging weak points and emphasizing particularly well - developed areas.

Positive Nitrogen Balance: Biochemical state where nitrogen levels are sufficiently high enough to allow protein synthesis to occur. Positive nitrogen balance is one of the conditions accelerated by the use of anabolic steroids.

Posterior: Used to describe the position of a structure when it is behind another comparable structure, as the posterior (or rear) head of the deltoid.

Poundage: The amount of weight that you use in an exercise, whether that weight is on a barbell, dumbbell, or exercise machine.

Power: In bodybuilding and power lifting, this is strength, of the ability to use very heavy poundages on all basic movements. In a sports context, power is the ability to move heavy weights explosively.

Power Lifting: A second form of competitive weight lifting (not contested at the Olympics, however) featuring three lifts: the squat, the bench press, and the deadlift. Power lifting is contested both nationally and internationally in a wide variety of weight and age classes for both men and women.

Power Rack: A power rack is a safety apparatus that has two thick adjustable steel pins that the barbell rests upon. Bodybuilders and powerlifters use the power rack to perform squats, shrugs, deadlifts and presses.

Pre-Exhaustion: A technique used primarily on torso-muscle groups (chest, back, shoulders) which makes the weaker arm muscles temporarily stronger than normal, so basic exercises like bench press, lat machine pulldowns, and standing barbell presses can be pushed far past the point at which a bodybuilder would fail to continue a set. Preex involves supersetting an isolation exercise for a particular torso muscle (for example, flat bench flyes for the pecotral muscles) with a basic movement (for example, bench presses) for the same muscle.

Pre-judging: Judging of the first two rounds of the IFBB judging system during a morning or afternoon session separate from the evening public presenation at which Round Three is judged.

Progression: The act of gradually adding the amount of resistance that you use in each exercise. Without consistent progression in your workouts, you won't overload your muscles sufficiently to promote optimum increases in hypertrophy.

Pronation: You pronate your hand when you turn the palm down.

Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF): PNF techniques are used to improve strength and flexibility. The technique attempts to use reflexes initiated by muscle and joint receptors to cause greater training effects. The most popular PNF stretching technique is the contract - relax stretching method. The muscle is actively contracted before it is stretched. Static stretching is generally preferred over PNF.

Protein: General term used to describe molecules composed of specific sequences of amino acids. Protein is the body’s primary building material and while small amounts can be manufactured, most must be consumed in the diet.

Protein Drinks: Another option to maintain your total protein intake for the day is to take the product in liquid form. The most common are protein drinks available in small bottles, generally 500 ml or less. They are moderately priced and conveniently sized, making them very easy to drink whether at home or at the gym.

Protein Metabolism: The processes whereby protein foodstuffs are used by the body to make tissue proteins, together with the processes of breakdown of tissue proteins in the production of energy. Food proteins are first broken down into amino acids, then absorbed into the bloodstream, and finally used in body cells to form new proteins. Amino acids in excess of the body’s needs may be converted by the liver enzymes into keto acids and urea. The keto acids may be used as sources of energy via the Krebs citric acid cycle, or they may be converted into glucose or fat for storage. Urea is excreted in urine and sweat.

Pump: A commonly used bodybuilding term is “the pump”. “The pump” occurs when your muscles swell up beyond their normal size by a considerable amount. Looking at yourself in the mirror, you will look bigger, and likely show appear more vascular and defined as well as being more confident in yourself. This pump is normally fast to achieve and shouldn’t take much more than four sets. I find a really good way to pump up is to do pushups until I reach failure, and normally my chest will look bigger than ever. A good pump can be felt and noticed throughout the entire workout if done properly. Oxygen and nutrients will continually to be brought into the area being exercised during intense weight training activity. Blood is forced into the area being exercised but not drawn out. This extra blood stays in there for some period, causing it to swell and appear noticeably bigger. A reason why many people like to pump up before they pose for a picture is to take advantage of this difference in size which occurs. See also, Bodybuilder’s High

Pump Set: A high - rep set, usually in the range of 15 to 20 repetitions, of a basic exercise which is done after a peak weight has been handled in that movement. Usually a pump set is the last one done on a particular basic movement. A pump set is also sometimes called a down set.

Quality Training: A type of workout used just prior to a competition in which the lengths of rest intervals between sets are progressively reduced to increase overall training intensity and to help further define the physique.

Recovery Cycle: The process between workouts during which the body flushes out fatigue toxins, restores muscle glycogen, repairs itself, and increases in hypertrophy. The length of this cycle varies from as little as 48 hours to as much as one full week, and perhaps more. Recovery is enhanced by sufficient sleep and proper nutrition.

Rep: See Repetition

Repetition: This term, which takes on the short form, rep, refers to a single rendition of an exercise. For example, if your curl a barbell through the entire range of motion once, you have completed one repetition (rep) of the movement.

Resistance: The actual amount of weight you are using in any exercise.

Rest Interval: The brief pause lasting between 30 seconds to two minutes, and in some cases even longer, which occurs between sets to allow your body to partially recuperate prior to initiating the succeeding set.

Reverse Anorexia: See Muscle Dismorphia

Ripped: See Cut

Roid Rage: Popular name given to the uncontrolled outburst of anger and violence exhibited by anabolic steroid users. Despite never being proven by the medical community, the term is continuously exaggerated by the mainstream media.

Rope: This attachment is used on a cable machine, and is commonly used for exercises such as rope pulls, or triceps pushdowns.

Routine: The term routine is very broad, and encompasses virtually every aspect of what you do in one weight lifting session, including the type of equipment you use, the number of exercises, sets, and repetitions you perform; the order in which you do the exercises; and how much rest you take between sets. You can change the factors within your routine to change your results.


Go to: S-Z Terms

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